Prep the dulce de leche. Add the dulce de leche to a bowl with 4 tablespoons of heavy cream. Whisk until smooth and creamy.
Whip the cream. In another large mixing bowl, whisk 5 tablespoons of the dulce de leche mixture in with the remaining heavy cream and all of the vanilla extract and beat until soft peaks form.
Layer the ice cream. In a freezer safe container or loaf pan, gently add a layer of the whipped cream mixture, then swirl gently with a spoonful of the dulce de leche mixture. Continue this until the pan is full, finishing with a final layer of caramel. Top with flaky salt if desired.